(excavated statue of Khufu)

Khufu, also known as Cheops, was second Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty which ruled from 2551-2528BC. Khufu started the succession of the Three Great Pyramids of Giza, a massive size of 230.6m base, 146.7m height, 2,600,000 volume square meters and weighing over five million tons. “It fascinated ancient authors such as Herodotus, Strabo, and Pliny.” (20) Cheops Pyramids is known as The Great Pyramid and the largest monument in the world until the 19th century (24).

Building: The Great Pyramid is known to have many myths about how the Egyptians proceeded to build a five million ton structure without the help of machines. The evidence presented by Archaeologists such as Mark Lehner and his excavations of the Giza plateau, validate these presented myths.  Some theorists believe that Khufu’s pyramid was built from the inside out, but according to Jean-Pierre Houdin, Khufu’s pyramid “built from the outside to the inside via the succession of the horizontal courses. (24)  Khufu decided his necropolis should be built in Giza due to the abundant supply of limestone that could be used for construction material. In order to build the pyramids ramps were used to transport forty to sixty ton blocks. Verner explains “According to Lauer’s theory, which we have already outlined, the pyramid was probably erected by means of a whole system of ramps, including the fifty-meter-wide main ramp that led from quarries to the construction site. (50)” Although the Great Pyramids are the greatest evidence of the past they are not fully intact, Verner states that there are only two hundred and three blocks that remain intact due to the deterioration over time. According to John Romer, most of what we know about The Great Pyramids today is based off of the diary of American Archaeologist George Reisner. Khufu’s pyramid is the largest and most elaborate of the three Great Pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty. (50)

(example of The Great Pyramid)


Inside: Khufu Pyramid differed from the rest of the Giza Pyramids due to what was found inside. The chambers found within Khufu’s Pyramid were suggested by Borchardt, representing changes within the plan. Some Archeologists debate that the "queen’s chamber" was first made with the intent of being the Kings burial chamber, but abandoned for unknown reasons. Khufu’s pyramid baffles many Archaeologists and started a unique progress in the history of Egyptian Architecture.

(The different pathways and chambers inside Khufu's Pyramid)